Naparama (Mozambique)

Country: Mozambique
Details of Formation: The militia was formed in 1990 as a local force in Nampula. After success in this province, the militia extended their operations to Zambezia province.
Details of Termination: Police collected weapons 1994.
Purpose: The government aligned with the militia to support the regular armed forces in their war against the rebel Mozambican National Resistance.
Organisation: The PGM was led by a spiritual leader who was worshipped by many of the group’s members as liberator.
Weapons and Training: The militia was equipped with spears and rifles.
Size: The militia had 9,000 members in 1994.
Reason for Membership: Members strongly believed in the spiritual powers of the PGM’s leader. They included local residents from Nampula province and former refugees.
Treatment of Civilians: Group members were supported by villagers who brought them food. It is unclear whether the residents were coerced to do so or if they actually supported Naparama.
Other Information: In 1991, Naparama’s spiritual leader died. The militiamen believed in a spiritual power which was supposed to make them invulnerable to spears and injuries. Other names of the militia were Naprama and Nacrama.
References: Information was taken from news sources listed in the PGMD.