Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR) (Congo Kinshasa)

Country: Congo Kinshasa
Details of Formation: In 1998, the militia joined the Congolese military to fight against Rwanda in the Second Congo War. They are comprised of Hutus from Rwanda that fled to the DRC after the genocide.
Details of Termination: The Congolese government withdrew support for FDLR in 2002 and expelled FDLR fighters from Congo. However, in 2007 sources report that the Congolese government re-allied itself with FDLR in order to fight against a Tutsi rebel militia in the Kivu Province. In 2009 the Rwandan and Congolese government are reported to work together against the FDLR, although in the same year the Congolese government agreed to integrate the FDLR into its regular forces. Reports of activities with support from the official armed forces in 2013 and 2014.
Purpose: The government aligned with the group to carry out more effective military operations due to weaknesses of the Congolese Armed Forces. The militia was used to fight against the Rwandan military and rebels during and after the Second Congo War.
Organisation: The group is divided into FOCA, which is active in South Kivu, and RUD-Urunana , which is active in Lubero, North Kivu
Weapons and Training: The Congolese government supplies the militia with weapons and ammunition.
Size: Over time the militia grew smaller in size. While in 2009 the militia was comprised of 6,000 fighters, the number decreased to 3,000 in 2010.
Reason for Membership: Members of the militia are ethnically motivated.
Treatment of Civilians: The militia mainly focuses its attacks on the Kivu province. There they have carried out multiple attacks in villages.
Other Information: The militia is reported to be pro-government between Jan 1998-July 2002, Sept 2007-Dec 2008, and since July 2013.
References: Check PGMD for evidence.