FNL (National Liberation Forces) (Congo Kinshasa)

Country: Congo Kinshasa
Details of Formation: The militia is a Burundi Hutu rebel group that tries to destabilize the Burundi state. The first time the group is mentioned in the sources is in 1998, although they have already existed as a group before. The Congolese government began its support for the militia during the Second Congo War where they fought alongside the Congolese Armed Forces.
Details of Termination: In July 2002, the Congolese government signs a peace treaty with Burundi and commits to disband support for militias that act against Burundi. However, sources report that the DRC continues its support after the signing the agreement by supplying the militia with weapons and ammunition. In 2003, the Congolese government and the rebel groups signed another peace deal ending the Second Congo War forcing the government to withdraw all support for militias. After this agreement, there is no more mention of ongoing fighting.
Purpose: The Hutu militia tried to take control of the Congolese rivers in Sud-Kivu and fought against Burundi which was governed by a Tutsi government.
Organisation: Alain Mugabarabona is the militia’s leader. President Kabila supplied the group with arms and ammunition.
Weapons and Training: The FNL received arms and ammunition from the Congolese government. In addition, they carried out joint attacks and operations with the Congolese Armed Forces.
Size: There is no information about the militia’s force strength.
Reason for Membership: The group’s members are ethnic Hutus from Burundi. Their membership is driven by an ethnically motivated ideology which is why they worked together with Congo’s President Kabila who supports them.
Treatment of Civilians: There is no information about how the PGM treats civilians.
Other Information: --
References: Check PGMD for evidence.