Front for the Advancement and Progress of Haiti (FRAPH) / Attaches / Zenglendons (Haiti)

Country: Haiti
Details of Formation: After a military coup ousted democratically elected President Aristide in 1991, FRAPH emerged to prop up the military regime of General Cedras. It was often referred to as attaches or zenglendons (bandits) and was widely seen as latter day Tonton macoutes. The group was organized by Emmanuel “Toto” Constant in 1993 to counteract support for deposed president Aristide. Emmanuel Constant was on a CIA payroll at the time. The U.S government appears to have played a role in establishing and funding the group.
Details of Termination: The formation of paramilitary groups was banned in 1994 after President Aristide was returned to power by US troops. Aristide dissolved the army and introduced a civilian police force.
Purpose: The group was mainly used against Aristide supporters and to carry out the dirty work for the military, e.g. raids.
Organisation: According to reports, control over the group was mainly exercised by Colonel Francois and it was under the broader command of the military and the police. The group sometimes worked with the police and the army and received financial support from the army.
Weapons and Training: According to news sources the group was armed with shotguns and revolvers.
Size: --
Reason for Membership: Members were allowed to extort and rob the population, ran protection rackets and were involved in the trade of contraband goods. It is reported that members were paid to join, but another source states that people themselves paid to become members.
Treatment of Civilians: The group extorted the population and conducted raids in which they assassinated oppositional political leaders. They kidnapped, tortured and raped civilians and committed arson attacks. According to one report they are responsible for more than 3,000 deaths.
Other Information: Members of the group include former Tonton macoutes. Due to its close ties to the official armed forces, the group was difficult to distinguish from the military and the police. The group received funding from the US, specifically the CIA, which was involved in its formation.
References: Information was taken from news sources listed in the PGMD.

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