Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps (XPCC) (China)

Country: China
Details of Formation: The XPCC was created by Wang Zhen in 1954 under the orders of Mao Zedong. During the Cultural Revolution, it was severely damaged and was abolished completely in 1975. Due to perceived Soviet encirclement and Islamic fundamentalism, the XPCC was reopened in 1981 (Wikipedia). The decision to restore the XPCC came from the central government.
Details of Termination: still active
Purpose: The stated purpose of the XPCC is economic development, to ensure social stability and border defence. Its military role has gradually diluted at the end of the 20th century (Wikipedia). An unofficial purpose is to ensure social cohesion by suppressing riots and protests. Local ethnic minorities see in the XPCC a means to colonise the area with Han Chinese. In 2014, Xi Jinping stressed the importance of the XPCC for border defence.
Organisation: The XPCC functions as a government organisation. It has its own administrative structure and fulfills government functions such as healthcare and education. The local government usually does not interfere in its administration. The XPCC is administered by the central government and the local government, the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. The XPCC has sub-provincial powers and its economic and social development is administered separately from that of Xinjiang. It has its headquarter at Urumqi (Wikipedia). The XPCC has the same political status as the regional government and enjoys special benefits from the central government. It receives financial aid from the central government to make up for its economic losses and fulfill its task of providing security.
Weapons and Training: In 2011, the XPCC conducted a large-scale comprehensive military training exercise in training sites in Tianshan Mountain areas.
Size: The PGM size gradually increased over time. News sources estimate that in 1997 there were 930,000 employees. That same year many migrant workers joined the XPCC. In 1998 it had 2.38 million members and in 1999 2.4 million members. In 2000, estimates point to 2.5 and by 2004 to 2.54 million members. In 2010, a news source mentions again 2.5 million members, but by the end of 2013, the number had increased to 2,701,400, making up around 12% of the local population. Wikipedia estimates that in 2002 there were 2,501,200 members and currently around 2.6 million members. The PGM is so large that it populates and controls entire cities. (Wikpedia)
Reason for Membership: --
Treatment of Civilians: The XPCC held Uighur scholar Ilham Tohti as detainee and conducted a secret trial. The detainee was denied access to lawyers and was held incommunicado for six months. (Amnesty International)
Other Information: The Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps, abbreviated XPCC and also known as Bingtuan, is an economic and paramilitary government organisation. The majority of members are Han Chinese, but other ethnicities are also represented (Wikipedia). The XPCC controls agricultural colonies, processing plants, schools, hospitals, its own police force and prisons. For government link and institution that created the PGM, the state (institution) and the governing party (Communist Party of China) are both chosen as the state and the governing party cannot clearly be separated in China.
References: Amnesty International. 2014. “China: Secret trial of prominent Uighur academic makes a mockery of justice.” . 18 June.

Wikipedia. “Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps”.