Hizb-e-Wahdat (Afghanistan)

Country: Afghanistan
Details of Formation: The group originated in 1989 from the unification of Shia and Hazara parties. It is coded as being pro-government with the beginning of the Karzai government.
Details of Termination: The PGM was supposed to disarm in 2002 based on a peace deal but its leadership was reluctant to do so (like the leaders of other PGMs), and the plan was not fully implemented. In 2005 the group was significantly weakened militarily and only small parts of it continued to exist.
Purpose: The group was used to fight the Taliban and was part of an alliance supporting US anti-terrorism operations on the ground.
Organisation: The PGM was led by Karim Khalili (vice president) and Mohammad Mohaqiq and its commanders were subordinated to the government. It is linked to the political party of the same name.
Weapons and Training: The group was armed with machine guns and it is reported that members were not trained.
Size: In 2001 the group had at least 1,000 active members, according to a news report.
Reason for Membership: Ethnic/religious belonging and loyalty to the Shia Hazara group appear to play an important role for the group’s membership.
Treatment of Civilians: The PGM abducted people based on ethnicity (non-Hazaras such as Pashtuns and Tajiks), was accused of looting and extortion as well as murder and rape. It raided villages and its activities were mainly reported to have targeted northern Afghanistan’s Pashtun communities.
Other Information: The group consisted of Shiite Hazaras and was part of the Northern Alliance. It was led mainly by Karim Khalili and Mohammad Mohaqiq. The latter defected from the party in 2004 to found a new faction/party opposing Karzai. The part that was led by Khalili seemed to have lost most of its former leverage due to the party’s fragmentation. The PGM was based in Kabul and is known as Shia-Hazara militia, Wahdat-e-Islami, Hizb-i-Wahdat and Hezb-e-Wahdat. The PGM was influenced by and received support from Iran.
References: Amnesty International. 1995. “Afghanistan. Executions, amputations, and possible deliberate and arbitrary killings.” AI Index: ASA 11/05/95.
Human Rights Watch. 2005. “Blood-Stained Hands. Past Atrocities in Kabul and Afghanistan’s Legacy of Impunity.”
Information was taken from news sources listed in the PGMD.
Wikipedia. “Hezbe Wahdat.” https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hezbe_Wahdat&oldid=956669302