Kalangala Action Plan (Uganda)

Country: Uganda
Details of Formation: The KAP is an informal group created and headed by Maj. Ronald Kakooza Mutale, then a senior presidential adviser. It was officially launched in 2001 as a mobilisation group for the reelection of president Museveni and part of Museveni’s election campaign strategy (Human Rights Watch 2003, 2004, 2010).
Details of Termination: The group is not officially terminated and may be mobilised in further presidential election campaigns to ensure Museveni’s victory.
Purpose: The militia was trained in order to forcefully influence the 2001 election to Museveni’s advantage by deliberately using violence and intimidation. If a specific area was opposed to Museveni’s candidature, the KAP would travel to that region and intimidate people armed with sticks and guns. They kidnapped and tortured opposition leaders and help mobilise Museveni’s supporters (Rukooko 2005: 217-18). The KAP successfully fulfilled its purpose as Museveni emerged as the winner of the 2001 and subsequent elections.
Organisation: The group was headed by Senior Presidential Political Adviser, Maj. Ronald Kakooza Mutale (Rukooko 2005: 218).
Weapons and Training: The State House officially requested the UPDF to arm the KAP (Human Rights Watch 2003). They underwent military training and used sticks and guns.
Size: Reports on group size range from 150 to 800 members.
Reason for Membership: The militia drew its membership from loyalists of President Museveni's National Resistance Movement (NRM) and was described by the president as a "political action group for disturbed areas” (Human Rights Watch 2009).
Treatment of Civilians: The KAP arbitrarily arrested and detained people despite having no legal authority to do so, and violently attacked opposition supporters. All levels of government deny that they control the KAP and other paramilitary groups, making accountability almost impossible (Human Rights Watch 2003, 2010).
Other Information: The group was originally used in 2001 and then again in 2006 during presidential election campaigns. They were also reported present at a by-election in 2007 (although no violence was reported). They are government trained and reports claim they wear green uniforms. Their members include several ministers.
References: Human Rights Watch. 2003. “Abducted and Abused: Renewed War in Northern Uganda.”

Human Rights Watch. 2004. "State of Pain: Torture in Uganda."

Human Rights Watch. 2009. "Open Secret: Illegal Detention and Torture by the Joint Anti-terrorism Task Force in Uganda."

Human Rights Watch. 2010. "Uganda: Keep Election Campaign Free of Abuses. Prosecute Past Political Violence; Stop Intimidation of Media."

Rukooko, A. Byaruhanga. 2005. Protracted Civil War, Civil Militias and Political Transition in Uganda since 1986. In David J. Francis (ed.) Civil Militia: Africa’s intractable security menace? Aldershot: Ashgate, 213-230.