MQM Haqiqi (Pakistan)

Country: Pakistan
Details of Formation: Afaq Ahmad and Amir Khan, two high-ranking members of MQM, together with four other members of the provincial assembly formed the breakaway faction MQM Haqiqi and took over the MQM headquarters In 1992 after Pakistani military operation against the group. The Pakistani army supported the MQM Haqiqi and was involved in strengthening the newly emerged group.
Details of Termination: In November 1994, the Haqiqis lost official patronage from the Bhutto government. However, the MQM Haqiqis could not be effectively be ended. They continued to enjoy support from an intelligence agency, which tried to sabotage the Bhutto government. When they lost support by the intelligence agency, the MQM Haqiqis aligned with the Sunni extremist group Soldiers of the Companions of the Prophet. Subsequently, the MQM Haqiqis carried out attacks against Shia civilians and their mosques. Meanwhile, in 1995, the Bhutto government tried to crack down on the MQM Haqiqis using heavily armed police units.
Purpose: The main purpose of the MQM Haqiqi was to divide Bhutto’s, and earlier Nawaz Sharif’s, opponents, the MQM party.
Organisation: The MQM Haqiqi was linked to the army; later, it was handed over to six intelligence agencies under the civilian government. The MQM Haqiqi was led by Afaq Ahmad and Amir Khan who had been high-ranking members of the MQM. Gradually, the government became unable to control MQM Haqiqi.
Weapons and Training: The army trained and armed the MQM Haqiqi.
Size: News sources dated March 1995, after the MQM Haqiqi had already become anti-government, mention a PGM size of 500 members.
Reason for Membership: --
Treatment of Civilians: The MQM Haqiqi had been given carte blanche for murder, including for their extortion schemes against Karachi’s businessmen. They also extorted schools. It is not clear if the extortions and related murders took place when the MQM Haqiqi was still a PGM or only afterwards.
Other Information: The main antagonist the MQM Haqiqi fought against was the MQM party, which officially advocated for the rights of the Urdu-speaking Muslim immigrants coming from India to Pakistan after the 1947 partition. The MQM correspond to the Muttahida Qaumi Movement, which had also been a PGM.
References: Information was taken from news sources listed in the PGMD