JiTEM (Turkey)

Country: Turkey
Details of Formation: The group was founded as Gendarmerie Intelligence Group Command within the Intelligence Directorate of the General Command of the Gendarmerie in 1987. In 1988, it was changed to Gendarmerie Intelligence and Counter-Terrorism Group Command (JiTEM). In 2005, the group was officially founded, but the “new” group was based on the clandestine, already existing JiTEM (Wikipedia).
Details of Termination: It has been repeatedly claimed that JiTEM was dissolved, but evidence suggests that this never actually happened (Wikipedia).
Purpose: JiTEM’s main purpose is to counter (PKK) terrorism. It is used by the deep state to enforce alleged national interests. The state also took advantage of JiTEM’s clandestine existence, as it could not be held accountable for actions of a group that officially did not exist until 2005 (Wikipedia).A news source reports that they had valuable intelligence through the use of PKK informants.
Organisation: JiTEM was organized within the Turkish Gendarmerie, with its centre being in Ankara from where it received orders. In 2005 it was legalized by law, becoming the Gendarmerie Intelligence Department within the General Command of Gendarmerie, but its official activities were limited to carrying out technical stakeouts (Wikipedia).
Weapons and Training: JiTEM was involved in arms trafficking and possibly used Counter-Guerilla (Turkish Gladio) equipment (Wikipedia). A news source mentions that JiTEM members were found with machine guns.
Size: Colonel Arif Doğan claims the group had 10,000 members (Wikipedia).
Reason for Membership: Members were paid for each PKK member they killed (Wikipedia)
Treatment of Civilians: JiTEM used forced disappearances and killings against civilians and acted with impunity without being obstructed by the authorities (Amensty 1994). It allegedly also used torture against a detained correspondent (Amnesty 1995). The Human Rights Associations estimates that between 1989 and 2008 JiTEM was involved in 5,000 unsolved killings of civilians such as journalists, human rights defenders, government critics and intellectuals, and was responsible for 1,500 disappearances (Wikipedia).
Other Information: JiTEM is the controversial wing and intelligence agency of the Turkish Gendarmerie. It has probably had links to the Counter-Guerilla (Gladio PGM) (Wikipedia) as well as to the Hezbollah PGM and the Anti¬-Kurds Death Squads (PGM). It is unclear if JiTEM’s government-relation goes beyond the deep state. JiTEM members include village guards and (defected) PKK members.
References: Amnesty International. 1994. “Further information on UA 162/94 (EUR 44/29/94, 26 April 1994) - "Disappearance"/ Fear of Extrajudicial Execution and new concern: Extrajudicial execution/ Fear for safety.“ AI Index: EUR 44/35/94. 10 May.

Amnesty International. 1995. „Further information on EXTRA 01/95 (EUR 44/03/94, 6 January 1995) – and follow-up(s): EUR 44/14/95, 23 January 1995; EUR 44/21/95, 26 January 1995; EUR 44/23/95, 31 January 1995 - Fear of Torture.“ AI Index: EUR 44/26/95. 3 February.

Wikipedia. “Gendarmerie Intelligence Organization”. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gendarmerie_Intelligence_Organization&oldid=804984380