Zulus / Zoulous (Congo Brazzaville)

Country: Congo Brazzaville
Details of Formation: In May 1993, Lissouba won presidential elections. After the opposition began setting up their own militias, Lissouba put together the Zulus.
Details of Termination: In 1995, a peace pact between the Lissouba and the Nguesso camp was signed, but the Zulus and other militias were not effectively disarmed. The Zulus ceased to be a PGM in 1997 when Lissouba was ousted from power.
Purpose: Lissouba created the militia to protect his position and to fight against anti-government militias.
Organisation: The militia was created by former President Lissouba, but there is no information on the command structures. The militia operated in a decentralized manner with mid-level commanders. (Themnér 2011, 72)
Weapons and Training: The militia was reported to have a stock of weapons in their training camps and members were reported to use automatic rifles. In addition, the militia was advised and trained by Israeli, South African and British military personnel.
Size: In 1996, 2,500 Zulu members were integrated into the regular armed forces.
Reason for Membership: Members of the militia were of Bembe ethnicity and joined due to ethnic loyalty. However, also unemployed young men were forced to join the militia and were promised economic rewards. (Themnér 2011, 71)
Treatment of Civilians: Militia members looted houses of alleged opposition members (Bazenguissa-Ganga 1999, 48).
Other Information: Fight the militias of Lissouba's two rivals: his Prime Minister Kolelas and former President Nguesso. The respective militias took on ethnic shades and turned Brazzaville into a war zone. AKA Zoulous. Nibolek: in power according to EPR until 1997 under President Lissouba, who is responsible for the Zulus and became powerless from 1998 on (see additional source). Zulus fight for Lissouba (Nibolek) and against Kolela (Lari/Bakongo) in 1994. After agreement in 1995, Zulus fight against Sassou-Nguesso (Mbochi).
References: Bazenguissa-Ganga, Rémy. 1999. "The spread of political violence in Congo-Brazzaville." African Affairs 98(390): 37-54.

Themnér, Anders. 2011. Violence in post-conflict societies: Remarginalization, remobilizers and relationships. London: Routledge.