Laksaur (Indonesia)

Country: Indonesia
Details of Formation: The militia was founded in January 1999 and was officially inaugurated at the end of March. There is no detailed information on its foundation, but its leadership is closely connected to the military and civilian authorities.
Details of Termination: In July 2001 the main leaders of this group were arrested by the army and later tried. There is no explicit termination point but after the arrests there is no mention of the group being active. Last activity reported in 2000.
Purpose: The pro-integration militia was used to fight against East Timor’s independence referendum, for instance by destroying towns, killing villagers to the extent of massacres, murdering peacekeepers, and forcing people into West Timor. It also ran East Timorese refugee camps in West Timor and coerced people to stay there.
Organisation: The group cooperated with the local police and had close links to military and civilian authorities. Its head was Olivio Mendonça Moruk and it was formally funded by the Governor’s office.
Weapons and Training: The group was armed with guns and machetes and a source reports that weapons were provided by Agus. There is no information on training.
Size: Upon its inauguration in the beginning of 1999, the group had 351 members which grew to 600 and then to 1000 estimated members in mid-1999.
Reason for Membership: The group included community leaders and former members of Kopassus.
Treatment of Civilians: The group massacred civilians (church in Suai, East Timor) and coerced East Timorese refugees to stay in camps by threatening and intimidating them. In the refugee camps controlled by the militia people were exposed to sexual violence, abuse and bad living conditions. The PGM intimidated civilians by shooting guns in the air and throwing rocks. It destroyed and burned down villages. The group murdered international humanitarian workers and UN employees. It burned down the UNHCR office. Several officers were indicted for crimes against humanity.
Other Information: --
References: Information was taken from news sources listed in the PGMD.