Civil Defense Organization (Ghana)

Country: Ghana
Details of Formation: The Civil Defense Organization (CDO) was created in the early stages of Rawlings’ regime in 1984 to support the police and army in their operations. The militia acted as law enforcing organization and in close coordination with the police and military.
Details of Termination: In 1992, the National Patriotic Party called for the demobilization of the CDO in order to participate in elections. In 2001, during Ghana’s democratic transition and a change in government, members of pro-government militias, including the CDO members, had to hand over their weapons and were disarmed.
Purpose: The CDO was created by Rawlings’ Provisional National Defense Council to support the armed forces and other law enforcing institutions in their operations.
Organisation: The militia was led by Brigardier Ken Addy who commanded the militiamen. In 1998, Alex Antwi, a former Lieutenant-Colonel, became the new militia leader. The Civil Defense Organization carried out joint operations with the regular armed forces and the police. The CDO was strongly linked to the Ghanaian Provisional National Defense Council headed by former President Rawlings.
Weapons and Training: Members of the CDO received arms by the government to carry out their law enforcement tasks in coordination with the police and military.
Size: No information.
Reason for Membership: Initially, Rawlings planned to have a militia with a diverse group of people. Eventually, the militia was comprised of unemployed Ghanaians who joined for personal benefits.
Treatment of Civilians: Although the CDO’s main task was to enforce laws, there are also sources reporting that militia members target civilians indiscriminately and use their weapons to kill civilians.
Other Information: Revolutionary organ loyal to the P(NDC) government
References: Check PGMD for evidence.