Salwa Judum (India)

Country: India
Details of Formation: The group started as an anti-Maoist village defense movement in 2005 and was set up by the state government. However, the exact details of the foundation remain unclear. While the government definitively encouraged the formation of the Salwa Judum, some sources portray the original creation as a spontaneous uprising, which then turned into a paramilitary force for the government.
Details of Termination: On July 5, 2011, India’s Supreme Court declared the Salwa Judum as unconstitutional. It subsequently ordered the government to disband and disarm the group. There is no evidence that the group received any support after the court’s decision or carried out further attacks. Some members were integrated into an auxiliary police force as SPOs.
Purpose: The group was anti-Maoist and used by the government to combat Naxalite insurgents and mitigate violence perpetrated by them. It ran camps where suspected Maoist supporters were detained.
Organisation: The PGM received funding and material assistance from the government for camps it was ordered to run. According to news sources, the government was not able to effectively control the group. When it started as a movement, the group was led by K. Madhukar Rao.
Weapons and Training: Members of the group were armed with bows and arrows and SPOs were trained and armed by the government. However, it is stated that training was limited.
Size: --
Reason for Membership: The material benefits gained from extortion and looting are reported as an incentive to join for some members.
Treatment of Civilians: The group is reported to have committed human rights violations, such as killings, rape and other sexual violence, and forcibly displaced villagers. It was responsible for intimidation, extortion, arson to the extent of burning down villages, beating and looting. The PGM is reported to have contributed to an escalation of violence.
Other Information: The group’s name is translated as Campaign for Peace or “Peace hunt/march/mission”.
References: Amnesty International. “India urged to implement court ban of anti-Maoist militias.” July 7, 2011.

Amnesty International. “India: Maoist attack puts civilians at risk of further violence.” May 30, 2013., accessed on Sept. 14, 2016.

Information was taken from news sources listed in the PMGD.

Wikipedia. “Salwa Judum.”